Etelis carbunculus

Pacific ruby snapper ETA
Characteristic features:

Pinkish to reddish.


Up to 120 cm TL.


West and Central Pacific in tropical waters.


Rocky bottoms, from 90 to 400 m depth.


Feeds primarily on fishes, larger invertebrates such as squids, shrimps and crabs, also feeds on planktonic organisms. A demersal species occurring in aggregations. Length at maturity estimates vary, in waters off Papua New Guinea, length at first maturity was 61.0 cm FL,1 while off Hawaii first maturity was recorded at 35 cm.2 In Vanuatu, spawning occurs throughout the year peaking in November.3 The mean published literature for longevity is estimated at 15.2 years.4

Indonesian fisheries:

Caught mainly with bottom longlines and deep handlines.

Similar species:

Etelis coruscans
Flame snapper

Etelis coruscans

Etelis coruscans differs in having an outer margin of operculum rounded (vs. pointed); a caudal fin deeply forked (vs. shallowly forked) and 23–28 gill rakers on first gill arch (vs. 17–22).

Etelis radiosus
Pale Snapper

Etelis radiosus

Etelis radiosus differs in having a caudal fin lunate with notch in the center of trailing edge (vs. shallowly forked with no notch present); Maxilla extending to posterior eye margin (vs. level with middle of eye) and 32–36 gill rakers on first gill arch (vs. 17–22).

Pristipomoides spp.

Pristipomoides argyrogrammicus
Pristipomoides argyrogrammicus

Pristipomoides species differ in having junction between spinous and soft portion of dorsal fin indistinct (vs. junction deeply incised); dorsal fin with 10 spines and 10 soft rays (vs. 10 spines and 11, very infrequently 10, soft rays) and maxilla without scales (vs. with).

External links:
  1. Lokani P, Pili H, Richards A, Tiroba G. Estimation of the unexploited biomass and maximum sustainable yield for the deep reef demersal fishes in Papua New Guinea. In: United States Agency for International Development and National Marine Fisheries Service Workshop on Tropical Fish Stock Assessment’(Eds JJ Polovina and RS Shomura) National Marine Fisheries Service NOAA Technical Report NMFS-SWFSC-148 [Internet]. 1990. p. 29–54. Available from:
  2. DeMartini EE. Body size at sexual maturity in the eteline snappers Etelis carbunculus and Pristipomoides sieboldii: subregional comparisons between the main and north-western Hawaiian Islands. Marine and Freshwater Research [Internet]. 2017;68(6):1178–86. Available from:
  3. Allen GR. Snappers of the world: an annotated and illustrated catalogue of lutjanid species known to date [Internet]. 1985. Available from:
  4. Martinez-Andrade F. A comparison of life histories and ecological aspects among snappers (Pisces: Lutjanidae). 2003.