Epinephelus malabaricus

Malabar grouper MAR
Characteristic features:

Head and body pale mottled brown with many well-separated black spots, and scattered whitish spots and blotches.


Up to 100 cm TL.


Indo West Pacific in tropical waters.


Estuaries to offshore reefs from 10 to 50 m depth.

Indonesian fisheries:

Caught with trawls, longlines, traps, spear, and hook-and-line.

Similar species:

Epinephelus fuscoguttatus
Brownmarbled grouper

Epinephelus fuscoguttatus

Epinephelus fuscoguttatus differs in having dorsal head profile distinctly indented at eyes (vs. convex); preopercle finely serrate (vs. large serrations at the angle); posterior nostrils 4–7 times larger than anterior nostrils in adults (vs. nostrils subequal) and distinct caudal peduncle spot in adults (vs. no distinct caudal peduncle spot in adults).

Epinephelus polyphekadion
Camouflage grouper

Epinephelus polyphekadion

Epinephelus polyphekadion differs in having posterior nostrils twice size of anterior nostrils (vs. nostrils subequal, except in large adults where the posterior nostril is slightly larger than anterior) and a solid black saddle blotch on caudal peduncle (vs. oblique dark brown bar or blotches, sometimes with white spots on caudal peduncle).

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